The Association for Scientific Advancement in Psychological Injury in the Law has published an official position regarding psychological assessment of symptom and performance validity, response bias, and malingering. Psychol. Inj. And Law (214) 7:197-205. Bush, SS, Heilbronner and Ruff RM. According to the abstract, the “purpose of this position statement is to promote ethical psychological practice in legal context by reviewing validity assessment issues and their ethical foundations.” The authors find the position statement necessary as “no previously published document focuses specifically on symptom, performance, and response validity assessment that is pertinent for all psychological evaluation performed in forensic context.”
The authors make the following recommendations: Recommendations for Forensic Practitioners
- Strive to be familiar and practice consistent with relevant practice, ethical, and legal/legislative requirements pertaining to validity assessment, including the present statement and extant position statements (e.g., Bush et al. 2005a, 2005b; Heilbronner et al., 2009).
- Only validity measures having appropriate psychometric properties are used, selected based on the characteristics of the examinee and the circumstance(s) for which the examinee is referred.
- List all validity measures and psychometric indicators used but avoid describing them in detail.
- Interpretations of the results of assessment measures are based on consideration of all the relevant reliable assessment data, and then considered with the full data set (e.g., from examinee interview, collateral sources, records). These other data sets might contain substantial inconsistencies or discrepancies. The conclusions that best fit the full data set are offered in opinions and testimony, independent of the desires of the referral source.
- Be wary of inferring motivation, volition, intention, and consciousness when there is insufficient evidence. However, do not avoid making such judgments when sufficient evidence is available. Consistently using preferred inferences, such as feigning or a “cry for help,” can be unhelpful or misleading in individual cases unless the evidence overwhelmingly supports such a conclusion.
- Use of validity measures and indicators is maximized when practitioners understand the various items and definitions, and how to resolve inconsistencies therein in their conclusions. Understanding inconsistencies within and across relevant ethics codes, professional guidelines, practice regulations, legal/legislative frameworks, and position statements, enables practitioners to address them effectively in court.
- Repeatedly check for biases and incentives in one’s own practices and conclusions. Internal or external influences that detract from an unbiased approach to evaluations need to be considered and countered. It is the forensic practitioner’s responsibility to guard against biases and strive to maintain a balanced perspective.