Traumatic brain injury (“TBI”) is considered the main cause of hypopituitarism in adults and growth hormone (“GH”) deficiency is the most common pituitary deficit associated with TBI.
According to Cedars-Sinai, even after we stop growing, adults need growth hormone. Growth hormone plays a role in healthy muscle, how our bodies collect fat (especially around the stomach area), the ratio of high density to low density lipoproteins in cholesterol levels, and bone density. In addition, growth hormone is needed for normal brain function.
A recent study aimed to assess pituitary function and GH deficiency in adult patients at different time durations following complicated mild TBI, according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The study also aimed to evaluate whether mild TBI patients with GH deficiency had developed alterations in the glycolipid profile.
Forty-eight patients (34 men and 14 women) with complicated mild TBI were included in the study. Twenty-three patients were evaluated at 1 year (Group A), and 25 patients at 5 years or longer after the injury (Group B). All patients underwent basal hormonal evaluation for pituitary function. GH deficiency was investigated by the combined test (GH releasing hormone + arginine). The glycolipid profile was also evaluated.
Researchers report that GH deficiency occurred in 8/23 patients (34.7 percent) of Group A and in 12/25 patients (48 percent) of Group B. In addition, two patients, one in each group, showed evidence of central hypothyroidism. Patients examined one-year or several years after complicated mild TBI had a similarly high occurrence of isolated GH deficiency, which was associated with visceral adiposity and metabolic alterations.
These findings suggest that patients with complicated mild TBI should be evaluated for GH deficiency even if several years have passed since the underlying trauma.